Two separate studies, one for elementary and the other for middle school, have been done on high achievement in high challenge schools. The results of these studies are published in two books:  Oklahoma Best Practices, What Works in High Challenge Elementary Schools  and Oklahoma Best Practices, What Works in High Challenge Middle Schools. The studies looked at schools that operated under difficult circumstances but consistently maintained average or above average test results.  (The stress factors considered were low income, varied ethnicity, and limited English proficiency)  One of the conditions identified in both of these studies as a strong component in the high challenge - high performing schools was the involvement of the staff in the Great Expectations practices.  Utilizing Great Expectations practices helped create a positive learning environment at these schools.  The Oklahoma Study Executive Summary is available online


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